World Journal of Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention Volume No 7

Original Article Open Access

Predominant Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated With Breast Cancer: A 5-Year Review of Breast Cancer Patients from Accra, Ghana

Kofi Adesi Kyei, Samuel Yaw Opoku, Verna Vanderpuye, William K. Antwi and Promise Ahiagbenyo
World Journal of Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention 2014, 3:2



Breast cancer; the leading malignancy in Ghana accounts for 15.4 % of all cancer cases and appears to be on the increase. The cause of breast cancer is not known to date but several factors are known to increase the risks of developing this malignancy. All the known and proven risk factors are generally categorised into two main forms: preventable and non-preventable risk factors.


The study aimed at determining the major preventable risk factors among breast cancer patients in Ghana.


The medical records of thirty breast cancer patients admitted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were conveniently sampled each year over a 5 year period, from 2006-2010. Self-reported risk factors by patients were recorded. Risk factors considered were smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, Obesity, overweight, age at having first child, the use of oral contraceptive pills, and null parity. Data were then analysed using descriptive statistical method under SPSS software: bar charts, line graph and pie chart.


Obesity was consistently the highest risk most patients were exposed to for each of the year under review with an average number of 34.9%. Smoking was the least represented (4.6%).


Obesity was consistently the predominant preventable risk factor for the past five years and is likely to dominate for the next 5-10 years if lifestyles are not adjusted.


Malignancy, risk factors, lifestyle, breast cancer, predominant.

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