Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) with Cervical Lymph Node and Skeletal Metastases: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Azhar Rashid, Muhammad Adeel Ilyas, Khalique ur Rehman, Mudassar Hussain, Irfan Haider, Tahir Mehmood, Arif Jamshed and Shahid Hameed
World Journal of Surgical Medical and Radiation Oncology 2015, 4:3
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive intracranial tumor and diffusely infiltrates the surrounding brain tissue. Despite their malignant nature, they do not typically invade blood vessels and rarely spreads outside the central nervous system (CNS). Median survival of GBM patients after completing standard treatments is about 14 months and few have long term survival. Extra neural metastases usually occur after surgery in which the tumor cells may find an access to extra-cranial vessels, the most common sites being pleura and the lungs. Although the exact mechanism of extra-neural metastasis has been poorly understood, the lymphatic drainage, the venous system and the adjacent dura and bone invasion have been suggested as the three possible routes of extra-neural spread. Interestingly, we treated a rare case of extra-neural metastases of the GBM having left neck nodal mass and osseous metastases first time at our center. She was 21 year old female who had biopsy proven cervical lymph node metastases and radiologic evidence of skeletal metastases from Glioblastoma Multiforme and reviewed the literature.
GBM, Metastases, Skeletal metastases