Jaw Tumours in Ghanaian Children and Adolescents – A Retrospective Study
Abdulai Alhassan Emil, Nuamah Isaac Kwasi and Gyasi Richard Kwasi
World Journal of Surgical Medical and Radiation Oncology 2012, 1:17
There are few reports on the incidence of jaw tumors in the child. Those from Africa mostly originate from Nigeria and tend to dwell on odontogenic tumors only. In the present literature, there are no records describing the incidence of jaw tumors in Ghanaian children. The aim here is to determine the incidence of jaw tumors in children less than 19 years old attending a teaching hospital in Ghana.
A retrospective study.
Materials and Method:
Histopathological charts at the department of Pathology of a main tertiary healthcare setup between 1989 and 2008 were reviewed and 118 cases belonging to children less than 19 years were studied further. The pathologies were classified and the incidence in each group recorded. All records were analysed using Microsoft Excel spread sheet.
92(77.97%) were benign and 26(22.03%) malignant tumors. Male to female ratio for benign was 0.8:1, for malignant was 1.89:1 and for all tumors 0.97:1. 27(29.35%) benign tumors occurred in the maxilla and 65(70.65%) in the mandible. There were 48(40.68%) odontogenic, and 70(59.32%) non-odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the commonest odontogenic tumour, (30/48) 62.5%. Fibro-osseous lesions (N=31) were the commonest of all the tumors, constituting 26.27% of jaw tumors, and 44.29% of non-odontogenic tumors. Burkitt’s lymphoma was the commonest malignant neoplasm, (17/26)65.38%.
Most jaw tumors are benign. 19.67%(118/600) affect children and adolescents, Burkitt’s lymphoma is the most prevalent malignancy and together with other non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma form about 20% of all tumors and 88% of all malignancies affecting the jaws in childhood.